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翻译自:ECC releases code for Halo 2 - Electric Coin Company
Electric Coin Co. (ECC) today opened the source code we are developing for Halo 2, an updated, more efficient version of ECC’s recursive proof composition that eliminates the need for a trusted setup in Zcash. It may also advance a promising scalability solution for Zcash and other blockchains.
ECC公司今天开源了我们开发的 Halo2的代码, ECC 构建了一个更新的,更加高效的版本, ECC的递归凭证组合,移除了zcash 中的信任设定。 同时这也可能是zcash链和其他区块链在有前途的扩展性解决方案的一大进步。

The scientific underpinnings of Halo 2 have already had impacts in the blockchain ecosystem. In a companion post, ECC Engineer Sean Bowe provides a more in-depth explanation of Halo 2.
Halo 2 improvements were done in coordination with, and supported by a grant from, the Ethereum Foundation (EF).
Halo2 的科学支柱已经对于区块链系统有一定的影响。 在我们的发布指南中,ECC 工程师 Sean Bowe 提供了一个更加深入的 Halo 2的介绍。

ECC is committed to fully productizing Halo 2, with the intent to eliminate trusted setup as early as 2021. This would also set the stage for future support of recursive proofs in support of layer 1 scalability. In the months ahead, we will be committing significant resources in R&D, engineering, business development, marketing, operations and third-party support to ensure Halo 2 will be productized safely and securely. Ultimately, it will be the Zcash community that decides whether Halo 2 becomes part of Zcash.
ECC团队正在打造一个完整的Halo2产品,目的是为了在 2021的早期移除信任设定。 同时这也给未来在一层网络上使用递归凭证组合实现其扩展性奠定基石。 在未来的几个月内,我们将会我们将投入资源到意义重大的研发、工程、业务扩展、市场、运营及第三方支持等工作中,以确保 Halo2 能够被安全可靠的产品化。 最后,将由zcash 社区决定是否在 Zcash 网络中激活 Halo2.

1. What is Halo 2? ( 什么是 Halo2)

Halo effectively compresses history and distributes computation through recursive proof composition to make blockchain transactions lighter and faster, dramatically improving efficiency and eliminating the need for a trusted setup.

From the original Halo announcement in 2019:
Recursive proof composition holds the potential for compressing unlimited amounts of computation, creating auditable distributed systems, building highly scalable blockchains and protecting privacy for all of humanity. The concept is a proof that verifies the correctness of another instance of itself, allowing any amount of computational effort and data to produce a short proof that can be checked quickly.
从 2019 年我们对 Halo 的公告中可以看到, 递归凭证组合特性具有压缩无限数量的计算、创建可审计的分布式系统、构建高扩展性的区块链,并进一步的保护全人类的隐私的潜力。 这个概念是一个凭证,他可以认证其自身凭证的另一个实例的正确性, 并允许任何数额的计算和数据都能产生一个可以被快速校验的较短的的凭证。

While the original Halo used “Sonic” to verify transactions, Halo 2 uses “PLONK,” a novel zk-SNARK invented by Zac Williamson and Ariel Gabizon of Aztec Protocol. PLONK is more efficient than Sonic, allowing the expression of more complex circuits in fewer gates.
然而这初始的Halo版本使用的Sonic技术去验证交易,而Halo2使用PLONK技术,这是一个全新的ZK-SNARK技术,这个算法是由Aztec Protocol团队的Zac Williamson and Ariel Gabizon发明的。PLONK是比Sonic更加的高效,在更少门的情况下允许更复杂的单元表达式。

The novel ideas underlying Halo are being adopted in recursive SNARK projects such as Coda (Pickles) and Mir (Plonky). These implementations illustrate the impact of Bowe’s research.

“The ideas of Halo have been an essential ingredient in our new SNARK, Pickles,” said Izaak Meckler, CTO & co-founder, O(1) Labs. “We really value that everyone at Electric Coin Company does their work in the open and open sources their code — it’s led to a lot of advancements in the ecosystem.”
Izaak Meckler, CTO & co-founder, O(1) Labs. 说到Halo 的观点已经被我们原生的集成到我们新的 SNARK 技术的项目Pickles 中。 我们真诚的认为ECC团队的每个人在都是开放的方式工作,并开源其代码,这真的很有价值。 这给整个生态系统带来了诸多进步。

“Halo is a significant breakthrough in making recursive SNARKs practical: We now have smaller fields, faster provers and no trusted setups,” said Brendan Farmer, CEO of Predicate Labs, which is developing Mir. “That Sean [Bowe], Daira [Hopwood] and Jack [Grigg] have led the way in both research and implementation speaks to their exceptional talent as cryptographers.”
正在开发MIR项目的Brendan Farmer, CEO of Predicate Labs说到,Halo在递归SNARK实践中是一个重大的突破,我们现在有更小的领域,更快的证明以及无需信任设定。Sean [Bowe], Daira [Hopwood] and Jack [Grigg]这三个人作为一个密码学家在研究和实现上展现了他们异常的天赋。

3. Role of the Ethereum Foundation (以太坊基金会的角色)

In July, EF granted $120,000 to ECC to continue Halo research. While still in the exploratory phase, both organizations believe there is value in standardizing Halo. One potential advantage is that it could facilitate cross-chain interoperation.
在 7 月份的时候,以太坊基金会给了ECC12 万美金去持续做 Halo 的研究。 当时我们还在探索阶段,这些组织都相信使得 Halo标准化存在价值。 一个潜在的好处就是,他能简化跨链通信。

“The Ethereum Foundation is excited to formally support the talented people at ECC, while taking our informal collaborations to date to the next level,” said Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum founder. “The EF believes zero-knowledge proof technologies will be transformative toward building a better world and recognizes Halo 2’s potential to contribute to this.
以太坊创始人 Vitalik Buterin 说到, 以太坊基金会很激动的正式支持了这些天赋异禀的ECC团队成员, 当我们将非正式的协作提高到一个新的水平。 以太坊基金会相信零知识证明技术将会在构建一个更好的世界发挥作用,让我们重新认识到 Halo2在实现这一目标的潜力。

“The more people and organizations throughout the blockchain ecosystem work together, the sooner the benefits of our efforts can be realized by all.”
ECC is in discussions with EF and other organizations regarding further Halo collaboration. Using the same zero-knowledge proof technology (Halo 2) on multiple blockchains may enable trustless and flexible cross-chain interoperation.
越多的人和组织进入到区块链生态系统中协作, 那么我们的努力的收益实现的也就会越快。
ECC正在和以太坊基金会及其他组织就Halo远期的协作洽谈。 在多个区块链系统中使用同一个零知识证明技术即(Halo2)将实现无信任及灵活的跨链操作。

4. Open-source license agreement (开源许可协议)

Halo 2 was released under a Transitive Grace Period Public License (TGPPL), an open-source model that gives everyone equal access to the code and equal rights to improve Halo commercially as long as they subsequently open-source their improvements after 12 months.
Under this license, ECC receives no special or exclusive privilege — any user or any company can take advantage of the licence’s benefits on an equal footing. Later this week, we will release a post on TGPPL and its potential benefits for the open-source community.
Halo2 的版本发布于TGPPL(过渡宽限期公共许可) 协议之下, TGPPL 是一个开源的范式,给与每个人同等的访问代码的权限, 以及同等的权力去提高Halo的商业性, 只要他们在达成成就的12个月之后开源。
在这个许可协议之下, ECC团队没有特权或者豁免权。 任何用户任何公司能够利用这个许可协议在一个公平的步伐中收益。 本周之后,我们将在 TGPPL 上发布一个公告并阐述对开源社区带来的潜在好处。

5. What’s next for Halo 2? ( Halo2 下一步要干嘛)

Halo 2 research has the following milestones:
a. Publish a development branch using PLONK, including benchmarking for various circuit sizes.
b. Develop a proof-of-concept, proof-carrying data (PCD) application, allowing us to (1) refine APIs for implementing circuits and (2) improve testability, including benchmarks.
c. Finish a thorough description of our highly optimized protocol, with security analysis and a specification.
a. 发布一个使用 PLONK 算法的开发分支,包括多个单元大小的基准测试
b. 发布一个概念即证明,带数据的凭证应用, 允许我们(1)改良实现单元的API,(2)提高可测性,包括基准测试
c. 完成一个关于我们高级别的优化协议的周密介绍, 包括安全分析和一个说明书。

When these objectives are met, ECC will evaluate whether it would be feasible and safe to implement Halo 2 in Zcash as early as 2021. As mentioned above, Halo 2 would be used to eliminate the trusted setup while setting a foundation for future use of recursive proof composition for scalability. Deploying Halo 2 will be a community decision, and we’ll provide updates on our work as they become available.
当这些目标碰到一起的时候, ECC团队将会衡量这个能否可行、安全的于在2021 年的早些时候在Zcash网络中实现。正如我们上面提到的那样, Halo2 将会被用来移除信任设定,同时给未来使用递归凭证组合和扩展性奠定基础, 部署 Halo2 将会是一个社区的决定, 当一切准备就绪时,我们将准备更新升级工作。

The process of implementing new, bleeding-edge technology is a long one. It involves scientific peer review, engineering, third-party security audits and testing to assure safety. ECC has a track record of deploying innovative technologies safely, and we know this work requires collaboration. From open sourcing Halo, to working with the Ethereum Foundation, to researching future implementations, collaboration is at the core of what we do. If you are considering Halo for your project or you would like to learn more, please don’t hesitate to reach out to us.
实现一个新颖的尖端的技术的过程漫长。 它涉及科学的同行互审,工程,第三方安全审计及测试以确保安全。 ECC在安全的部署创造性新技术方面有良好记录, 并且我们知道这个需要协作。 从开源 Halo 到和以太坊基金会一起合作, 致力于去研究未来的实现, 协作是我们工作的核心。 如果你正在考虑将Halo引入到你的项目中来,或者你想学习更多, 请不要犹豫,直接联系我们。

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