Yes! I think this is a great idea. I think we should invent the concepts of an "I-got-robbed button" and "slow money".
You could take some of your money and choose to put a "slowing spell" on it. When you cast the slowing spell, you choose the amount of delay imposed, e.g. 30 days. After you cast the slowing spell, then the next time you move that money (send it in a transaction to a new address), the transaction doesn't finalize for 30 days. During the period that the transaction has been initiated but not finalized, you can hit an "I-got-robbed button" to cancel the transaction.
That's the basic idea. I've thought about it quite a bit and there are a couple of more tweaks we should probably add.
One is that if you hit the I-got-robbed button, the money should be returned not to the original sender (which, after all, probably just had its private spending key stolen), but to a different address. Maybe we could integrate this with hierarchical deterministic keys, to make it easier for people to learn and use. And of course, the slowing-spell should still stay on it in this case!
(Whereas in the other case — if you move the money and the waiting period elapses without anyone hitting the emergency button — then the slowing spell is over, and the new private spending key would have to choose to cast it again if it wanted.)
Another is that if you hit the I-got-robbed button, then maybe you shouldn't get 100% of the value back, but perhaps 95% or 90% of the value. This would be a disincentive to use the I-got-robbed button to defraud or extort recipients. I'm not sure about the security implications of this tweak.